Flying an aeroplane is an extremely difficult task, let alone being talented enough to be dubbed an ‘ace’. The term ace is a military reference that describes a pilot that shoots down at least five enemy aircraft. This definition has become slightly less relevant in modern times as new aviation technology has seen a decline in the common occurrence of ‘dog fights’ in wars such as World War II. Here below are listed 7 men who have made history, being the aces of aces.
Manfred von Richthofen- World War I
Everybody has heard of the ‘Red Baron’, even if they are not exactly sure who he is and what he did the name stands as historically famous. Richthofen was a pilot for the Imperial German Army Air Service. Through his contribution to the war he had 80 credited kills, having more areal victories in World War I than any other pilot. He achieved fame across all of Europe and became a national hero in Germany. However in April 1918 Richthofen received a fatal wound in Northern France, and died in the cockpit after making an emergency landing.
Erich Hartman- World War II
Hartman is known as the ace of aces, with more aerial combat victories than any other pilot in history. He was known as ‘Bubi’ to the Germans and ‘The Black Devil’ to the Soviets. He shot down an exceptional number of 352 enemy aircraft’s during his career in the German Airforce. Hartman was never forced to land due to enemy fire and prided himself on continually improving his skills as a stalk-and-ambush fighter over his 1,404 combat missions.
James Jabara- Korean War
Jabara was a successful pilot for the United States Airforce through World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. He became the first American jet ace in history in the Korean war when he tried to let go of his spare fuel tank, but it did not separate from his wing fully. He pushed on and gained two more victories despite his aircraft’s disadvantage. After the Korean War Jabara soured up the ranks to become the youngest colonel at the time.
Muhammad Mahmood Alam- Indo-Pakistani War
This Pakistani fighter ace was a Pakistani Air Force jet fighter pilot in the Indo- Pakistani War. He was the last fighter pilot in history to become an ace in a single day, shooting down five Indian Hawker Hunter fighter jets in less than 60 seconds. He holds the world record for becoming an ace in the shortest space in time. He also holds the title of being the only jet pilot to become an ace in one day.
Charles B. DeBellevue- Vietnam War
DeBellevue was the most successful American Airman in the Vietnam war. He had 6 confirmed kills through the duration of the war, and was the first Air Force Weapons Systems Officer to become an ace. Only four other pilots also achieved the status of an ace in the Vietnam War.
Giora Epstein- Arab – Israeli Wars
Epistein was a supersonic jet pilot in the Israeli Air Force. He is known to be the ace of aces for supersonic jet pilots having shot down 17 enemy aircraft’s. This is the most victories for any pilot in the modern fighter jet era. He was named “Hawkeye” due to his acute eyesight which helped him accurately shoot at enemy planes.
Cesar Rodriguez- Gulf War
Rodriguez is known as the “Last American Ace”, even though he did not shoot down 5 enemy planes. He achieved 3 aerial victories during the 1990’s, becoming the most victorious along with three other pilots since the Vietnam War.
Amazing school buildings converted into homes
School building are built for functionality and efficiency, but they also often have an unrealised beauty to them.
Every town needs a school, and as towns grow, old schools are left and sometimes fall into disrepair.
But these optimists have claimed some fascinating and beautiful old school and turned them into their homes. Take a look below.
1. School House in country New York.
This tiny school house is located in an isolated township in country New York, in America.
The quaint interior and the buildings isolation make this a delightful little getaway. Most of the woodwork is original, and objects like the library ladder when kept to retain the building’s character.
2. Highschool converted into apartments.
Highschools are often brutally functional; with cold metal railing and simple layouts.
But for some, that’s the perfect starting point for a living space. This old high school was refurbished and divided up into apartments.
3. Toronto High School from the 60s.
This Toronto family bought an entire school that was built over 70 years ago.
The left most of the interior intact, changing only what was required to make the building more energy efficient and easier to heat.
4. Tiny school house in Canada.
One of the benefits of converting an old school is that they tend to be quite large, which is great for big families.
Not so with this school, which must have had a single class (and a small one at that). This tiny school is now a tiny cottage for a small family to live in.
5. Australian industrial school.
Old technical schools are often filled with big, clunky furniture and rough brick. And that’s exactly what some people are looking for in a home.
The amazing building is a perfect example of the overlooked potential of old school buildings.
Five Biggest Mistakes When Building a Horse Arena
If building a horse arena is costly, making mistakes in the process can be painfully costly. A horse arena is a major investment, and getting it right in the earliest planning stages will save you a lot of time, money and heartache. Take the following points into consideration if you’re planning to construct your own arena, and remember than one mistake made can often lead to others.
1. Location by nature, not by aesthetics.
Obviously, drainage is a problem that looms large in arena construction. It is important to locate your arena on a high point of the property; never choose a site that is at the base of hills, or in the path of runoff water. Working with nature rather than against it can cut the drainage battle in half, and will probably reduce the costs as well.
2. Drainage; Get it right the first time.
Water pooling on your arena will lead to a breakdown in expensive arena surface and sub-layers, and create an unstable riding environment. Make sure you design a proper, realistic drainage system based on location, the lie of the land, anticipated annual rainfall, soil type and your own sub-layers. There are a number of methods used for arenas, take the time to investigate which will work best with the above factors. Obviously, building a covered over horse arena will eliminate a lot of the drainage problems, so long as surrounding run-off is properly drained, the arena surface itself won’t have to stand up to downpours and sodden surfaces. Another big advantage of a covered arena is that you can collect and store the water at little cost and with huge lasting benefits.
3. Use the right materials.
It is absolutely essential to spend time and money to ensure you use materials that will work for your arena. There is no across the board ‘rule book’ for sub layers, as materials vary from region to region. Skimping on base layers or choosing the wrong materials can undo the ultimate effectiveness and quality of your arena in a wink. Have a good idea how you want to use the arena when choosing materials, so you can make sure you have the right amount of each layer, and that one layer won’t become too thin after compacting to be effective.
4. Top layer is crucial.
Ideally, a “perfect” riding surface should be cushioned to minimise concussion on horse legs, firm enough to provide traction, not too slick, not too dusty, not overly abrasive to horse hooves, inexpensive to obtain, and easy to maintain. There is a wide range of top fill products available on the market, both natural and commercially produced, and your selection will depend largely on your budget and intended arena use. It would probably pay to make use of some local knowledge, talk to the people who have already done what you are seeking to do.
You can extend the lifetime of your arena by practicing some simple TLC. Harrow the topping regularly to prevent it compacting too much. Removing manure will preserve the quality of your top layer. Watering regularly will keep the dust down, and likewise if the surface is sodden after heavy rain, leave it to dry up a bit before riding. Ongoing maintenance not only saves you time in the long run, but will also save you money in lengthening the time between construction and when your arena is due for a renovation. Once again, building an arena cover will extend the life of your arena a lot by not exposing it to the weather and preserving the surface and below layers.